This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of lead-related tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in patients with permanent pacemaker (PM). A total of 2,533 patients who underwent permanent PM implantation between January 2008 and December 2017 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, 429 patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography within 90 days before implantation and were followed up at least 3 months after PM implantation were included. Patients who had pre-existing grade 3 or 4 TR, had a single atrial lead, or had undergone tricuspid valve surgery before PM implantation were excluded. Occurrence of PM-related TR (PMTR) was defined as worsening of TR by at least 2 grades on follow-up echocardiography. Cardiovascular outcomes were defined as the composite of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure. During the median follow-up of 855 days, 42 (9.8%) patients had PMTR and 86 (20.0%) presented with cardiovascular outcomes. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the presence of atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-4.09, p = 0.037]) and history of open-heart surgery (HR: 3.34, 95% CI: 1.68-6.68, p<0.001) were independently associated with PMTR. Patients with PMTR showed significantly higher cardiovascular events than those without (45.2 vs. 17.3%, log-rank p<0.001). Furthermore, PMTR was independently associated with the primary outcome (HR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.43-4.22, p = 0.001). In conclusion, the occurrence of TR in patients with permanent PM is not uncommon. PMTR is associated with atrial fibrillation, the history of openheart surgery, and poorer cardiovascular outcomes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)