Probing the role of methyl methacrylate release from spacer materials in induced membrane bone healing

Alexander Stahl, Young Bum Park, Sang Hyun Park, Sien Lin, Chi Chun Pan, Sungwoo Kim, Yunzhi P. Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

In the induced membrane (IM) technique for bone reconstruction, a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) spacer is implanted to induce formation of a foreign body membrane around the defect site. Membrane development is essential for later bone grafting success, yet the mechanism by which the IM promotes bone regeneration remains unknown, as are the ways that spacer composition plays a role in the membrane's healing potential. This study investigated the impact of leached methyl methacrylate (MMA)—the major monomeric component of PMMA—on IM development. In vitro cell culture found that MMA elution did not impact endothelial cell or mesenchymal stem cell proliferation. For in vivo analysis, we advanced a streamlined rat femoral model to efficiently study the influence of spacer properties on IM characteristics. Comparison of membrane formation around polycaprolactone (PCL), MMA-eluting PCL (high-dose PCL-MMA and low-dose PCL-MMA), and surgical PMMA revealed robust membranes enveloped all groups after 4 weeks in vivo, with elevated expression of osteogenic bone morphogenetic protein-2 and angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor compared with the surrounding muscle and bone tissues. Growth factor quantitation in IM tissue found no statistically significant difference between groups. New bone growth, vascularization, and CD163+ macrophage populations surrounding the polymer implants were also quantified; and blood vessel formation around high-dose PCL-MMA was found to be significantly decreased compared with PCL alone. To the best of our knowledge, these findings represent the first time that results have been obtained about the characteristics of membranes formed around PCL in the IM setting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1065-1074
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Research
Volume40
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 May

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was partially funded through financial support from NIH grants R01AR057837, U01AR069395, R01AR072613, and R01AR074458 from NIAMS, and DoD grant W81XWH‐20‐1‐0343, as well as from the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF‐2020R1F1A1049978).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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