Product outsourcing policy for a sustainable flexible manufacturing system with reworking and green investment

Raj Kumar Bachar, Shaktipada Bhuniya, Santanu Kumar Ghosh, Ali AlArjani, Elawady Attia, Md Sharif Uddin, Biswajit Sarkar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Production of defective products is a very general phenomenon. But backorder and shortages occur due to this defective product, and it hampers the manufacturer's reputation along with customer satisfaction. That is why, these outsourced products supply, a portion of required products for in-line production. This study develops a flexible production model that reworks repairable defective products and outsources products to prevent backlogging. A percentage of total in-line production is defective products, which is random, and those defective products are repairable. A green investment helps the reworking process, which has a direct impact on the market demand for products. A classical optimization solves the profit maximization model, and a numerical method proves the global optimal solutions. Sensitivity analysis, managerial insights, and discussions provide the highlights and decision-making strategies for the applicability of this model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1376-1401
Number of pages26
JournalMathematical Biosciences and Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
• This study deals with defective products from a smart production system. The inspection pro-cess is not necessary for these defective products to find out scrap products. Because no scrap product exists among defective products. All defective products are repairable. This reworking is supported by the accuracy level of the smart production.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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