Prognosis of Spontaneous Pneumothorax/Pneumomediastinum in Coronavirus Disease 2019: The CoBiF Score

International COVID-19 Pneumothorax Working Group (ICP-WG)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Highlights: What are the main findings? Pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum developed without positive pressure ventilation among COVID-19 patients had high fatality. Presence of comorbidity, bilateral pneumothorax, and fever were related with in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 associated spontaneous pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum patients The CoBiF score (Co = comorbidity, Bi = bilateral pneumothorax, F = fever) well-predicted the early mortality of these patients. What is the implication of the main finding? The CoBiF score was validated in multinational cohorts, and it could improve early recognition and treatment of COVID-19 pneumothorax. Objectives: Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum are associated with high mortality in invasively ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients; however, the mortality rates among non-intubated patients remain unknown. We aimed to analyze the clinical features of COVID-19-associated pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum in non-intubated patients and identify risk factors for mortality. Methods: We searched PubMed Scopus and Embase from January 2020 to December 2021. We performed a pooled analysis of 151 patients with no invasive mechanical ventilation history from 17 case series and 87 case reports. Subsequently, we developed a novel scoring system to predict in-hospital mortality; the system was further validated in multinational cohorts from ten countries (n = 133). Results: Clinical scenarios included pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum at presentation (n = 68), pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum onset during hospitalization (n = 65), and pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum development after recent COVID-19 treatment (n = 18). Significant differences were not observed in clinical outcomes between patients with pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax (±pneumomediastinum). The overall mortality rate of pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum was 23.2%. Risk factor analysis revealed that comorbidities bilateral pneumothorax and fever at pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum presentation were predictors for mortality. In the new scoring system, i.e., the CoBiF system, the area under the curve which was used to assess the predictability of mortality was 0.887. External validation results were also promising (area under the curve: 0.709). Conclusions: The presence of comorbidity bilateral pneumothorax and fever on presentation are significantly associated with poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum. The CoBiF score can predict mortality in clinical settings as well as simplify the identification and appropriate management of patients at high risk.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7132
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Prognosis of Spontaneous Pneumothorax/Pneumomediastinum in Coronavirus Disease 2019: The CoBiF Score'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this