Background: In this study, risk factors for loco-regional recurrence in curative R0 resected gallbladder adenocarcinoma were investigated. Methods: Patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma with curative R0 resections between 2000 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Loco-regional failure-free survival (LRFFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method; prognostic factors were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Based on the identified risk factors, patients were grouped for further analysis. Results: A total of 272 patients were included for analysis; overall, 5-year LRFFS and OS were 83% and 81%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, 3 risk factors for LRFFS were identified; lymphovascular invasion, T3, and N1, by which patients were grouped; group 1 for 0 factor, group 2 for 1 factor and group 3 for 2 to 3 factors. The 5-year LRFFS in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 94%, 73%, and 40%, and the 5-year OS in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 90%, 75%, and 47%, respectively. LRFFS and OS differed significantly among groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In patients with R0 resected gallbladder cancer, the presence of >1 risk factor increased the risk of loco-regional recurrence. Additional therapeutic strategy for these patients needs further consideration.
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