Renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), which invades beyond muscularis into peripelvic fat or the renal parenchyma, is diagnosed as stage pT3 despite its structural complexity. We evaluated the prognostic impact of peripelvic fat invasion in pT3 renal pelvic TCC. Between 1986 and 2004, the medical records on 128 patients who were surgically treated for renal pelvic TCC were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty patients with pT3 disease were eligible for the main analysis. The prognostic impact of various clinicopathological factors was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. On univariate analysis, sex, age, concomitant bladder tumors, concomitant ureter tumors, lymphadenectomy, adjuvant chemotherapy, tumor grade, multiplicity, renal parenchymal invasion, and carcinoma in situ did not influence the disease-specific survival (p>0.05). By contrast, peripelvic fat invasion, lymph node invasion, and lymphovascular invasion were each significantly associated with disease-specific survival (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that peripelvic fat invasion (p=0.012) and lymph node invasion (p=0.004) were independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, peripelvic fat invasion is a strong prognostic factor in pT3 renal pelvic TCC. Thus, systemic adjuvant therapy should be considered in the presence of peripelvic fat invasion, even if the lymph nodes are not involved.
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