Purpose We determined the prognostic impact of a synchronous second primary malignancy on overall survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Identifying features that stratify the risk of overall survival is critical for judiciously applying definitive therapy. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed the records of 582 consecutive patients with prostate cancer diagnosed with metastasis between May 7, 1998 and August 27, 2011. Patient age, body mass index, ECOG performance status, Charlson comorbidity index, prostate specific antigen, T and N stages, Gleason and ASA® scores, progression to castration resistant prostate cancer, prior local treatments and synchronous second primary malignancies at metastasis were assessed. A synchronous second primary malignancy was defined as a cytologically or histologically proven solid malignancy. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was done to estimate overall survival by second primary type and evaluate predictive variables. Results A total of 164 patients (28.1%) had a synchronous second primary malignancy, of which colorectal (9.1%), stomach (7.3%) and lung (7.1%) cancers were the most prevalent types. During a median followup of 34.1 months patients without a synchronous second primary malignancy had a significantly higher overall survival rate than those with lung or stomach cancer. However, men without a second malignancy had outcomes comparable to those in men with colorectal cancer. Clinical stage T4 or greater, ASA score 1 or greater and lung or stomach cancer were independent predictors of overall mortality. Conclusions A substantial proportion of patients with metastatic prostate cancer present with a synchronous second primary malignancy. Definitive therapy targeting prostate cancer may confer a limited survival benefit in patients with synchronous lung or stomach cancer.
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