Purpose: To investigate predictors of progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) in patients with metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 440 consecutive treatment-naïve patients initially diagnosed with mPCa between August 2000 and June 2012. Patient age, body mass index (BMI), Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA nadir, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, Visual Analogue Scale pain score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG PS), PSA response to hormone therapy, and metastatic sites were assessed. Cox-proportional hazards regression analyses were used to evaluate survivals and predictive variables of men with bone metastasis stratified according to the presence of pain, compared to men with visceral metastasis. Results: Metastases were most often found in bone (75.4%), followed by lung (16.3%) and liver (8.3%) tissues. Bone metastasis, pain, and high BMI were associated with increased risks of progression to CRPC, and bone metastasis, pain, PSA nadir, and ECOG PS=1 were significant predictors of CSM. During the median follow-up of 32.0 (interquartile range 14.7–55.9) months, patients with bone metastasis with pain and patients with both bone and visceral metastases showed the worst median progression to CRPC-free and cancer-specific survivals, followed by men with bone metastasis without pain. Patients with visceral metastasis had the best median survivals. Conclusion: Metastatic spread and pain patterns confer different prognosis in patients with mPCa. Bone may serve as a crucial microenvironment in the development of CRPC and disease progression.
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© Yonsei University College of Medicine 2015.
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