Background: Dietary patterns promoting hyperinsulinemia and chronic inflammation, including the empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP), have been shown to strongly influence risk of weight gain, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. EDIH was developed using plasma C-peptide, whereas EDIP was based on plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 (TNF-αR2). We investigated whether these dietary patterns were associated with a broader range of relevant biomarkers not previously tested. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 35,360 women aged 50–79 years from the Women's Health Initiative with baseline (1993–1998) fasting blood samples. We calculated EDIH and EDIP scores from baseline food frequency questionnaire data and tested their associations with 40 circulating biomarkers of insulin response/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, chronic systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, lipids, and lipid particle size. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression was used to estimate the percent difference in biomarker concentrations per 1 standard deviation increment in dietary index. FDR-adjusted p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) were significantly associated with altered concentrations of 25 of the 40 biomarkers examined. For EDIH, the percent change in biomarker concentration in the insulin-related biomarkers ranged from +1.3% (glucose) to +8% (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance) and −9.7% for IGF-binding protein-1. EDIH impacted inflammation and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers from +1.1% (TNF-αR2) to +7.8% (CRP) and reduced adiponectin by 2.4%; and for lipid biomarkers: +0.3% (total cholesterol) to +3% (triglycerides/total cholesterol ratio) while reducing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 2.4%. EDIP showed a similar trend of associations with most biomarkers, although the magnitude of association was slightly weaker for the insulin-related biomarkers and stronger for lipids and lipid particle size. Conclusions: Dietary patterns with high potential to contribute to insulin hypersecretion and to chronic systemic inflammation, based on higher EDIH and EDIP scores, were associated with an unfavorable profile of circulating biomarkers of glucose-insulin dysregulation, chronic systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and dyslipidemia. The broad range of biomarkers further validates EDIH and EDIP as mechanisms-based dietary patterns for use in clinical and population-based studies of metabolic and inflammatory diseases.
|Journal||Frontiers in Nutrition|
|Publication status||Published - 2021 Sept 20|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The WHI program is funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services through contracts HHSN2682016 00018C, HHSN268201600001C, HHSN268201600002C, HHSN2 68201600003C, and HHSN268201600004C.
© Copyright © 2021 Shi, Aroke, Jin, Lee, Hussan, Zhang, Manson, LeBlanc, Barac, Arcan, Clinton, Giovannucci and Tabung.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics