Purpose: Early detection and control of inflammation are important to manage Graves’ orbitopathy (GO). We investigated the effects of calprotectin (S100A8/A9) on orbital fibroblast inflammation and GO pathogenesis. Methods: We measured serum calprotectin, S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA expression in orbital fat/connective tissue from GO patients and healthy controls, and proinflammatory cytokines in primary cultured orbital fibroblasts. Results: The serum levels of S100A8/A9 and the expression of S100A8/A9 mRNA in orbital tissue were higher in the GO patients than in the healthy controls. The serum calprotectin levels positively correlated with the clinical activity score and serum thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin levels. In cultured GO orbital fibroblasts, S100A8/A9 increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, as well as the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor-κB. Conclusion: We demonstrated the potential of calprotectin as a biomarker of GO severity and proinflammatory responses to S100A8/A9 in GO orbital fibroblasts.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy