Purpose: In donor nephrectomy, it is important to understand the exact anatomy of the blood vessels during minimally invasive surgery. We prospectively analyzed the accuracy of the vessel structures obtained by use of 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography compared with the actual vessel structure observed during surgery. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 238 patients who underwent donor nephrectomy from July 2007 to August 2010. Before the operation, MDCT angiography was performed, and after the operation, the surgeons themselves wrote the protocol. The ipsilateral artery, the number of veins, the association with the run of the hilar vessel, and other vascular anomalies in computed tomography (CT) angiography and in the donor protocol were summarized. Results: Among 238 patients, nephrectomy was performed on the left side in 199 patients. The accuracy of MDCT for the artery and the vein was 93.3% and 92.4%, respectively. Accuracy did not differ significantly on the left and right sides (artery: p=0.124; vein: p=0.174). In 199 patients, the CT findings for the lumbar vein were compared with the surgical findings. The overall accuracy was shown to be 84.9%, and the accuracy of the group drained to the inferior vena cava (54%) was significantly different (p<0.01) from that of the group drained to the renal vein (98.6%). Thus, it may be necessary to pay close attention to the interpretation of the findings for the lumbar vein. Conclusions: MDCT angiography is important for understanding the exact anatomy of blood vessels before minimally invasive surgery. We showed that 64-channel MDCT has high accuracy in the main vessel and hilar vessels. However, close attention to the interpretation of the CT findings for the lumbar vein may be required.
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