In the immune oncology era, the clinical efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) against most solid cancers is well known. In hepatocellular carcinoma, the recent success of combination therapy with targeting agents has accelerated the search for novel combination strategies. Radiotherapy (RT), an attractive modality, can be combined with ICIs, which act as strong modulators of the tumor immune microenvironment. Herein, we discuss immune modulation caused by radiation and the current trials of RT–ICI combination treatment as well as future perspectives.
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