Background: The purpose of this study was to validate the predictive value of the oncologic outcome in addition to the validation of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) surgical risk calculator in patients treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) or pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) for pancreatic head cancer. Methods: From June 2005 to December 2014, 199 patients underwent PD or PPPD for pancreatic head cancer. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for investigating general patient characteristics and any comorbid diseases. The calculated perioperative complication risks from the ACS NSQIP calculator were compared with observed complication rates. In a propensity score matching analysis, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated according to calculated severe complication rate (CSCR). Results: The CSCR > 17.9% (n = 69) and CSCR < 17.9% (n = 130) groups were significantly different considering number of the retrieved lymph nodes (22.95 ± 14.0 vs 18.80 ± 10.1, p = 0.029), histologic grade (p = 0.0235), and incidence of lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.026). The CSCR < 17.9% group had longer DFS (17.0 vs. 11.0 months, p = 0.015), but the OS was similar between the groups (39.0 vs. 23.0 months, p = 0.48). In the 1:2 propensity score analysis, the CSCR < 17.9% group had longer DFS and OS (DFS 26.0 vs. 11.0 months, p = 0.009; OS 44.0 vs. 26.0 months, p = 0.023). Conclusion: The ACS NSQIP surgical risk calculator predicts surgical risk in patients with pancreatic head cancer who undergo PD or PPPD. Furthermore, this tool can help predict the prognosis of surgically treated pancreatic head cancer.
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