Ratio of waist-to-calf circumference and carotid atherosclerosis in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes

Soo Kyung Kim, Young Ju Choi, Byung Wook Huh, Chul Sik Kim, Seok Won Park, Eunjig Lee, Yong Wook Cho, Kap Bum Huh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE - To investigate whether waist circumference (WC), calf circumference (CC), and waist-to-calf ratio (WCR) are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This was an observational study performed in 3,694 Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. Anthropometric measures and carotid ultrasound were performed on each subject. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as having a clearly isolated focal plaque or mean carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ≥1.1 mm. RESULTS - CIMT and the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis were higher with increasing WC quartiles and decreasing CC quartiles. There was an augmentative effect of CC and WC on the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis, which was dramatically higher in both the highest WC quartile and lowest CC quartile. However, except for the relationship between the quartile of CC with the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis in men, those associations disappeared after adjusting for potential confounders. In contrast, WCR was significantly related to CIMT (only in women) and carotid atherosclerosis, even after adjustment (adjusted odds ratio for carotid atherosclerosis for the highest quartile of WCR compared with the lowest quartile being 1.178 [95% CI 1.026-1.353] and 1.276 [1.053-1.545] in men and women, respectively). CONCLUSIONS - A low CC and high WC seems to be associated with a carotid atherosclerotic burden in Korean diabetic patients. In particular, compared with each circumference, WCR is independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis. However, the cross-sectional nature of the study limits conclusions regarding the direction or causality. Further longitudinal study is warranted in this and other ethnic groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2067-2071
Number of pages5
JournalDiabetes Care
Volume34
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Sep 1

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Carotid Artery Diseases
Waist Circumference
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Ethnic Groups
Causality
Observational Studies
Longitudinal Studies
Research Design
Cross-Sectional Studies
Odds Ratio

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Advanced and Specialised Nursing

Cite this

Kim, S. K., Choi, Y. J., Huh, B. W., Kim, C. S., Park, S. W., Lee, E., ... Huh, K. B. (2011). Ratio of waist-to-calf circumference and carotid atherosclerosis in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 34(9), 2067-2071. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc11-0743
Kim, Soo Kyung ; Choi, Young Ju ; Huh, Byung Wook ; Kim, Chul Sik ; Park, Seok Won ; Lee, Eunjig ; Cho, Yong Wook ; Huh, Kap Bum. / Ratio of waist-to-calf circumference and carotid atherosclerosis in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. In: Diabetes Care. 2011 ; Vol. 34, No. 9. pp. 2067-2071.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVE - To investigate whether waist circumference (WC), calf circumference (CC), and waist-to-calf ratio (WCR) are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This was an observational study performed in 3,694 Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. Anthropometric measures and carotid ultrasound were performed on each subject. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as having a clearly isolated focal plaque or mean carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ≥1.1 mm. RESULTS - CIMT and the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis were higher with increasing WC quartiles and decreasing CC quartiles. There was an augmentative effect of CC and WC on the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis, which was dramatically higher in both the highest WC quartile and lowest CC quartile. However, except for the relationship between the quartile of CC with the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis in men, those associations disappeared after adjusting for potential confounders. In contrast, WCR was significantly related to CIMT (only in women) and carotid atherosclerosis, even after adjustment (adjusted odds ratio for carotid atherosclerosis for the highest quartile of WCR compared with the lowest quartile being 1.178 [95{\%} CI 1.026-1.353] and 1.276 [1.053-1.545] in men and women, respectively). CONCLUSIONS - A low CC and high WC seems to be associated with a carotid atherosclerotic burden in Korean diabetic patients. In particular, compared with each circumference, WCR is independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis. However, the cross-sectional nature of the study limits conclusions regarding the direction or causality. Further longitudinal study is warranted in this and other ethnic groups.",
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Kim, SK, Choi, YJ, Huh, BW, Kim, CS, Park, SW, Lee, E, Cho, YW & Huh, KB 2011, 'Ratio of waist-to-calf circumference and carotid atherosclerosis in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes', Diabetes Care, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2067-2071. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc11-0743

Ratio of waist-to-calf circumference and carotid atherosclerosis in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. / Kim, Soo Kyung; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Byung Wook; Kim, Chul Sik; Park, Seok Won; Lee, Eunjig; Cho, Yong Wook; Huh, Kap Bum.

In: Diabetes Care, Vol. 34, No. 9, 01.09.2011, p. 2067-2071.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Ratio of waist-to-calf circumference and carotid atherosclerosis in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes

AU - Kim, Soo Kyung

AU - Choi, Young Ju

AU - Huh, Byung Wook

AU - Kim, Chul Sik

AU - Park, Seok Won

AU - Lee, Eunjig

AU - Cho, Yong Wook

AU - Huh, Kap Bum

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N2 - OBJECTIVE - To investigate whether waist circumference (WC), calf circumference (CC), and waist-to-calf ratio (WCR) are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This was an observational study performed in 3,694 Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. Anthropometric measures and carotid ultrasound were performed on each subject. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as having a clearly isolated focal plaque or mean carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ≥1.1 mm. RESULTS - CIMT and the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis were higher with increasing WC quartiles and decreasing CC quartiles. There was an augmentative effect of CC and WC on the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis, which was dramatically higher in both the highest WC quartile and lowest CC quartile. However, except for the relationship between the quartile of CC with the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis in men, those associations disappeared after adjusting for potential confounders. In contrast, WCR was significantly related to CIMT (only in women) and carotid atherosclerosis, even after adjustment (adjusted odds ratio for carotid atherosclerosis for the highest quartile of WCR compared with the lowest quartile being 1.178 [95% CI 1.026-1.353] and 1.276 [1.053-1.545] in men and women, respectively). CONCLUSIONS - A low CC and high WC seems to be associated with a carotid atherosclerotic burden in Korean diabetic patients. In particular, compared with each circumference, WCR is independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis. However, the cross-sectional nature of the study limits conclusions regarding the direction or causality. Further longitudinal study is warranted in this and other ethnic groups.

AB - OBJECTIVE - To investigate whether waist circumference (WC), calf circumference (CC), and waist-to-calf ratio (WCR) are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This was an observational study performed in 3,694 Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. Anthropometric measures and carotid ultrasound were performed on each subject. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as having a clearly isolated focal plaque or mean carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ≥1.1 mm. RESULTS - CIMT and the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis were higher with increasing WC quartiles and decreasing CC quartiles. There was an augmentative effect of CC and WC on the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis, which was dramatically higher in both the highest WC quartile and lowest CC quartile. However, except for the relationship between the quartile of CC with the frequency of carotid atherosclerosis in men, those associations disappeared after adjusting for potential confounders. In contrast, WCR was significantly related to CIMT (only in women) and carotid atherosclerosis, even after adjustment (adjusted odds ratio for carotid atherosclerosis for the highest quartile of WCR compared with the lowest quartile being 1.178 [95% CI 1.026-1.353] and 1.276 [1.053-1.545] in men and women, respectively). CONCLUSIONS - A low CC and high WC seems to be associated with a carotid atherosclerotic burden in Korean diabetic patients. In particular, compared with each circumference, WCR is independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis. However, the cross-sectional nature of the study limits conclusions regarding the direction or causality. Further longitudinal study is warranted in this and other ethnic groups.

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