Rationalizing the enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of PEDOT:PSS by secondary doping

Marco Cassinelli, Won Tae Park, Youngno Kim, Jung Hyun Kim, Yong Young Noh, Mario Caironi

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The enhancement of the thermoelectric (TE) properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) through secondary doping is well-known. In particular, the increase in the power factor (PF) following the addition of the strong polar solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in an aqueous solution is largely reported. However, systematic and comprehensive characterization of the morphological, compositional, and energetic evolution of the system with the addition of the secondary dopant is still missing. Here, the rationalization of the PF enhancement of PEDOT:PSS thin films with the addition of DMSO is presented. The system evolution is followed with morphological, by AFM and grazing incident wide angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS), compositional, by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energetic, by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), measurements as varying the secondary dopant percentage from 0 to 50 vol. %. UPS measurements reveal no changes in the work function, substantiating the measured constant values of Seebeck coefficient (S) as varying the percentage of DMSO. On the other hand, XPS analysis confirms that the PSS to PEDOT ratio decreases with the addition of DMSO. However, the compositional changes do not influence the molecular packing and the thin film crystallinity, as reported by GIWAXS measurements. This comprehensive analysis of the system evolution makes possible to safely relate the increase in the electrical conductivity (σ) as a function of the secondary dopant to the sole enhancement of the charge carrier mobility, due to both morphological and chemical composition changes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number033301
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jul 19

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was partially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (No. 2017R1E1A1A01075360).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Author(s).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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