In this paper, we report real-time measurement results of various contact forces exerted on a new flexible capacitive three-axis tactile sensor array based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). A unit sensor consists of two thick PDMS layers with embedded copper electrodes, a spacer layer, an insulation layer and a bump layer. There are four capacitors in a unit sensor to decompose a contact force into its normal and shear components. They are separated by a wall-type spacer to improve the mechanical response time. Four capacitors are arranged in a square form. The whole sensor is an 8 × 8 array of unit sensors and each unit sensor responds to forces in all three axes. Measurement results show that the full-scale range of detectable force is around 0-20 mN (250 kPa) for all three axes. The estimated sensitivities of a unit sensor with the current setup are 1.3, 1.2 and 1.2%/mN for the x-, y- and z-axes, respectively. A simple mechanical model has been established to calculate each axial force component from the measured capacitance value. Normal and shear force distribution images are captured from the fabricated sensor using a real-time measurement system. The mechanical response time of a unit sensor has been estimated to be less than 160 ms. The flexibility of the sensor has also been demonstrated by operating the sensor on a curved surface of 4 mm radius of curvature.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering