Triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion (TTA-UC) has been attracting attention in various fields as a promising tool to efficiently generate a shorter-wavelength photon than incident light. Compared to conventional UC technologies (e.g., lanthanide-doped inorganic nanoparticles), TTA-UC has advantages of tunable spectral range and high UC efficiency (>1-40%) at non-coherent solar irradiance (Iex < 1-102 mW cm−2). This review article provides a succinct overview of the historical background and recent strategies for solving a critical problem (i.e. oxygen quenching) of TTA-UC to improve the efficiency and to expand its applicability in various fields. We also introduce recent strategies to develop host materials (e.g., films, polymers, nanocapsules, gels) for overcoming a quenching problem, before we detail recent progress in applications of TTA-UC materials involving bioimaging, biomedicines, photocatalysts, photovoltaics and OLEDs. This review article aims to highlight the challenges and recent advances in the field of TTA-UC, providing the readers with guidance and opportunities to join the research.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Smart Farm Innovation Technology Development Program (421020-03); the Ecological Imitation-based Environmental Pollution Management Technology Development Project (2019002790008) funded by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE); the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2021M3H4A4079509); the 2021 BK21 FOUR Program of Pusan National University; the Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB) Research Initiative Program (1711134045) and the support of “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No. PJ014790022021)” Rural Development Administration.
© 2022 The Royal Society of Chemistry
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Chemistry