Hydrogen producing granules (HPGs) are most promising biological methods used to treat organic rich wastes and generate clean hydrogen energy. This review provides information regarding types of immobilization, supporting materials and microbiome involved on HPG formation and its performances. In this review, importance has been given to three kinds of immobilization techniques such as adsorption, encapsulation, and entrapment. The HPG, characteristics and types of organic and inorganic supporting materials followed for enhancing hydrogen yield were also discussed. This review also considers the applications of HPG for sustainable and high rate hydrogen production. A detailed discussion on insight of key mechanism for HPGs formation and its performances for stable operation of high rate hydrogen production system are also provided.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Author GK would like to acknowledge the financial assistance from Ton Duc Thang University, Ho chi minh City, Vietnam.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal