The contribution and insights of the immobilization technology in the recent years with regards to the generation of (bio)hydrogen via dark fermentation have been reviewed. The types of immobilization practices, such as entrapment, encapsulation and adsorption, are discussed. Materials and carriers used for cell immobilization are also comprehensively surveyed. New development of nano-based immobilization and nano-materials has been highlighted pertaining to the specific subject of this review. The microorganisms and the type of carbon sources applied in the dark hydrogen fermentation are also discussed and summarized. In addition, the essential components of process operation and reactor configuration using immobilized microbial cultures in the design of varieties of bioreactors (such as fixed bed reactor, CSTR and UASB) are spotlighted. Finally, suggestions and future directions of this field are provided to assist the development of efficient, economical and sustainable hydrogen production technologies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The financial assistance to one of the authors (GK) from year 50 billion’ grants) issued by Ton Duc Thang University , Vietnam is highly acknowledged. This study was also financially supported by the Research Grants ( MOST 105-3113-E-006-003 ; MOST 104-2221-E-006-227-MY3 ; MOST 103-2221-E-006-190-MY3 ) from Taiwan’s Ministry of Science and Technology. The Top University Grants (also known as ‘5 Taiwan’s Ministry of Education is also gratefully acknowledged. This study was supported by the Research Grant (FOSTECT.BR.17) from Ton Duc Thang University, Vietnam.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal