Reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species cause oxidative and nitrosative stresses, respectively. These stresses are implicated not only in diverse physiological processes but also in various pathological processes, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, some ROS and RNS in the environment are pollutants that threaten human health. As a consequence of these effects, sensitive methods, which can be employed to selectively monitor ROS and RNS in live cells, tissues and organisms as well as in environmental samples, are needed so that their biological roles can be understood and their concentrations in environmental samples can be determined. In this review, fluorescent, luminescent and colorimetric ROS and RNS probes, which have been developed since 2011, are comprehensively discussed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by a grant from the National Creative Research Initiative program (2012R1A3A2048814 to J. Y. and 2010-0018272 to I. S.). X. Chen acknowledges the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21376117), the Jiangsu Natural Science Funds for Distinguished Young Scholars (BK20140043), and the Natural Science Foundation of the Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions of China (14KJA150005). F. Wang acknowledges the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21406109).
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