The climate community has made significant progress in observing, understanding and predicting El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over the last 30 years. In spite of that, unresolved questions still remain, including ENSO diversity and extreme events, decadal modulation, predictability, teleconnection, and the interaction of ENSO with other climate phenomena. In particular, the existence of a different type of El Niño from the conventional El Niño has been proposed. This type of El Niño has occurred more frequently during the recent decades and received a great attention in the climate community. This review provides recent progresses on dynamics, decadal variability and future projection of El Niño, with a focus on the two types of El Niño.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Supported in part by NIH Contract CB 53-886.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science