This study evaluated the osteoinductive effect of the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-coated biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) carrier system on the grafted sinus area, including surrounding tissues and the Schneiderian membrane. A total of 18 male rabbits were used in this study; two for in vitro and 16 for in vivo experiments. Schneiderian membranes taken from two animals were cultured with or without rhBMP-2, and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed. Both maxillary sinuses in each of the 16 animals were used to compare the in vivo effects of rhBMP-2-coated BCP (experimental group) and BCP alone (control group). In each animal, rhBMP-2-coated BCP was grafted into one of the maxillary sinuses, and the same amount of BCP alone was grafted into the contralateral site in random order. Radiologic and histometric analyses were performed at 2 and 8 weeks after surgery. After 2 days of culturing with or without rhBMP-2, a significant increase in the expression of early osteoblasts (RUNX2, type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin) could be observed. Different histologic healing patterns were observed in experimental and control sites: newly formed bone lining the reflected sinus membrane without bone formation was observed at the central areas of experimental sites (window=0.06%; center=0%; membrane=20.86% of new bone), whereas evenly distributed new bone formation was observed at the control sites (window=7.27%; center=7.41%; membrane=15.58% of new bone).The augmented volume was well maintained at both the experimental and control sites during the experimental period, but at 2 weeks, the augmented volume was greater at the experimental sites than at the control sites (232.62 and 195.29 mm3, respectively; p<0.001). These results suggest that good space maintenance in sinus augmentation is achieved with BCP, while the osteoinductive potential of the sinus membrane is activated at the early stage of healing with rhBMP-2.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering