Prothrombin, a protein involved in blood coagulation, is a plasma glycoprotein composed of the Gla domain, two adjacent kringle domains, and a serine protease domain. Kringles are triple-disulfide-loop folding domains, which are found in several other blood proteins. In this study, we showed that recombinant human prothrombin kringle-1, -2, and -1-2 (rk-1, -2, -1-2) all have potent anti-angiogenic activities, which inhibit Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor growth and metastases. Recombinant human prothrombin kringles were expressed by an E. coli expression system and purified to apparent homogeneity from crude E. coli extracts. Purified rk-1, -2, -1-2 migrated with a molecular mass of 14, 19, and 31 kDa, respectively, on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under reducing conditions. rk-1, -2, -1-2 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on bFGF-stimulated bovine capillary endothelial cell growth with half-maximal concentrations (ED50) of approximately 41, 55, and 156 nM, respectively. All of the recombinant human prothrombin kringles also inhibited angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chick embryos at a dose of 20 μg. Systemic administration of rk-1, -2, -1-2 at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day suppressed the growth of primary LLC and at dose of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg/day inhibited LLC metastases in C57BL6/J mice lungs through their anti-angiogenic effects.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by grant no. R01-2000-00141 from the Korea Science & Engineering Foundation, KRF-2000-015-DP0407 from Korea Research Foundation, and The Brain Korea 21 Project.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cancer Research