In this study, modulating lithium storage is achieved as a result of the built-to-order assembly of composite anodes by the serial connection of reconfigurable plug-and-play devices in an ambient atmosphere. In this assembly, spark ablation, mechanical spraying, and ultraviolet exposure devices are connected in series, as well as the turning of devices, under a continuous air flow, affording composite anodes in less than 15 s. Specifically, SnO2 nanoparticles prepared from spark ablation are carried by air flow, and the flow is injected into a mechanical spray system to generate carbon nanotube–graphene nanosheet/polyaniline slurry droplets, where SnO2 nanoparticles are inserted into the droplets via gas pressurization at the spray nozzle. Subsequently, the droplets are passed through a 254-nm ultraviolet lamp and a silica–gel–installed hollow tube for dynamic stiffening and drying to form SnO2-carbon nanotube–graphene nanosheet/polyaniline composites in a single-pass air flow. In addition, different composites such as SnO2-carbon nanotube (or graphene nanosheet)/polyaniline, SnO2–CuO-carbon nanotube–graphene nanosheet/polyaniline, and SnO2–Co3O4-carbon nanotube–graphene nanosheet/polyaniline are conveniently assembled by the reconfiguration of metal oxide nanoparticles or carbon/polymer slurries in the plug-and-play operation. These composites are suitable as anodes for lithium storage and enabled the modulation of specific capacities, rate capabilities, and cyclabilities by employing different architectures.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIP) (No. 2015R1A5A1037668 ).
© 2019 Elsevier B.V.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering