Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in an imperfect production process under breakdown consideration

Bijoy Kumar Shaw, Isha Sangal, Biswajit Sarkar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


A long-run manufacturing system can experience machine breakdown at any time for various reasons such as unskilled labor or outdated machinery technology. In an integrated green inventory model, the produced green products cannot all be perfect throughout a cycle, particularly when machines malfunction. Therefore, an inspection policy is introduced to clean the production process from unusable defect products, the correctness of which depends on the discussion of the inspected errors. The perfect products detected via the inspection process are delivered to the retailer as well as the market. To transport green products, it is essential to control the capacity of the containers and the quantities of green products transported per batch. In this study, the greenhouse gas equivalence factor of CO2 emissions is calculated for all green products’ manufacturing and transportation mediums. These types of energies are used in the manufacturing process: electricity, natural gas, and coal. Whereas within transportation, four transportation modes are considered: railways, roadways, airways, and waterways. The retailer can agree to transport their inventories to the customers’ house according to their requirement by requiring a third-party local agency via outsourcing criteria. The model solves the problem of CO2 emissions through production and transportation within the machine breakdown.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)658-691
Number of pages34
JournalAIMS Environmental Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The Work is supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant, funded by the Korea Government (MSIT) (NRF-2020R1F1A1064460).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science(all)


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