Several researchers studied the mechanical characteristics of vertebrae. However, there were few studies for the regional morphology and mechanical characteristics of vertebrae. This study analyzed the regional variation for morphology and mechanical characteristics of vertebral trabecular bone using micro computed tomography (Micro-CT) and micro finite element analysis (μFEA). In this study, the 12th human thoracic vertebral bones (85 years female and 48 years male) were used. Thoracic vertebral specimens were scanned by Micro-CT. Fifteen regions which consisted of 3 layers and 5 columns for each layer were selected from acquired 2D image data. Structural parameters of these regions were calculated. The μFEA was used to investigate the mechanical characteristics of vertebral trabecular bone. The hexahedron finite element models with side length 4mm were generated for the selected regions. As a result, the region of center column and inferior layer had the highest density. Strucutural moduli in center column and middle layer were the biggest. The results indicated that there was a regional difference in mechanical characteristics of vertebral trabecular bone. This study indicated that there were significant differences in regional morphology and elastic characteristics. In addition, for more exact evaluation of osteoporosis, it was recommended to analyze not only morphology characteristics such as bone density but also mechanical characteristics such as structural modulus.