Objectives: Hypoxia is the condition where tumor cells have been deprived of oxygen and has been shown to have a role of tumor development in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Using PubMed online database and Google scholar web site, the terms "angiogenesis", "apoptosis", "RNA interference" and/or "hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)" were searched and analyzed. Results: The hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are transcriptional regulators that affect a homeostatic response to oxidative stress and have been identified as a key transcription activator of angiogenesis, survival, and metabolism. Cytokines, such as IL-8, also controlled endothelia cells survival and angiogenesis. IL-8 was also overexpressed under hypoxia and induced tumor angiogenesis and growth. Conclusion: Therefore, regulation of HIFs and IL-8 controlled the tumor microenvironment in terms of tumor angiogenesis and apoptosis. The review summarizes the results of regulation of the hypoxic tumor environment.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We are grateful to Dong-Su Jang (Medical Illustrator, Medical Research Support Section, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea) for his help with the figures. This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (NRF-2011-0014537).
© 2017 The Author(s).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research