Background: Obesity is known to be associated with an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer but not with noncardia cancer. In terms of gastric dysplasia, few studies have evaluated its relationship with obesity. In addition, no study on the relationship between obesity and the risk of gastric cancer has analyzed the status of Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods: A case–control study was designed to investigate the relationship between obesity and the risk of gastric cancer and dysplasia adjusted for the status of H. pylori infection in Koreans. Nine hundred ninety-eight gastric cancer patients, 313 gastric dysplasia patients, and 1,288 subjects with normal endoscopic findings were included. Results: As gender differences could be the largest confounding factor, the risk of gastric cancer and dysplasia with an increasing body mass index (BMI) was analyzed in men and women, separately, and was adjusted for age, smoking, drinking, family history of gastric cancer, H. pylori infection, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and serum pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio. Obesity (BMI 25 kg/m2 or greater but less than 30 kg/m2) was associated with increased risk of early gastric cancer [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.657; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.086–2.528; P = 0.019] and well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (aOR 1.566; 95 % CI 1.011–2.424; P = 0.044) compared with normal BMI status (BMI < 23 kg/m2) in men. Obesity was related to gastric dysplasia (aOR 2.086; 95 % CI 1.011–4.302; P = 0.047) in women. Conclusions: The effect of obesity on gastric cancer showed a gender difference. That is, in men it was related to increased risk of early gastric cancer and well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, but it was associated with gastric dysplasia in women regardless of H. pylori infection in Korea. Further research into this difference is necessary.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea grant for the Global Core Research Center funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (no. 2011-0030001); however, the authors do not have any conflict of interest. The authors thank the Division of Statistics of the Medical Research Collaborating Center at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital for statistical analyses.
© 2014, The International Gastric Cancer Association and The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research