With the wide diffusion of social media like YouTube in the world, it becomes much easier to access foreign cultural products, which facilitates cross-cultural consumption of media content. Despite the rapid growth of cross-cultural consumption online, there is a dearth of large-scale studies examining how cultural products originated from certain culture are consumed and enjoyed among users of different cultures. Three data sets are used in the study, namely, (1) users’ online activities on Korean Pop (K-pop) music videos on YouTube crawled via open Application Programming Interface, (2) Hofstede’s five-dimensional model of national culture, and (3) official statistics gathered by World Bank. By combining three data sets, this study investigates how K-pop music videos are consumed across a variety of cultures. Based on prior studies examining the relationship between cultural distance and export/import of cultural goods, this study extracted two seemingly contrasting hypotheses, that is, (1) cultural proximity hypothesis, emphasizing cultural similarity as a main motive for cross-cultural consumption and (2) cultural exoticism hypothesis, highlighting cultural difference driving cross-cultural consumption. Results show that K-pop music video consumption is highest among countries both whose cultures are very similar to Korean culture and whose cultures are very different, indicating that both hypotheses are empirically supported. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are also discussed.
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Table A1. Countries Included for Analysis. Code Name Code Name AE United Arab Emirates JM Jamaica AR Argentina JP Japan AT Austria KE Kenya AU Australia KW Kuwait BD Bangladesh LB Lebanon BE Belgium LU Luxembourg BG Bulgaria MA Morocco BR Brazil MT Malta CA Canada MX Mexico CH Switzerland MY Malaysia CL Chile NG Nigeria CN China NL Netherlands CO Colombia NO Norway CR Costa rica PA Panama CZ Czech Republic PE Peru DE Germany PH Philippines DK Denmark PK Pakistan EC Ecuador PL Poland EE Estonia PT Portugal EG Egypt RU Russian federation ES Spain SA Saudi Arabia FI Finland SE Sweden FR France SG Singapore GB United Kingdom SI Slovenia GH Ghana SK Slovakia (Slovak Republic) GR Greece SV El salvador GT Guatemala TH Thailand HK Hong kong TR Turkey HR Croatia (local name: Hrvatska) TT Trinidad & Tobago HU Hungary TZ Tanzania ID Indonesia US United States IE Ireland UY Uruguay IL Israel VE Venezuela IN India VN Viet nam IQ Iraq ZA South Africa IT Italy ZM Zambia Table A2. Countries Excluded for Analysis. Code Name Code Name AD Andorra LR Liberia AF Afghanistan LS Lesotho AG Antigua & Barbuda LT Lithuania AI Anguilla LV Latvia AL Albania LY Libyan Arab Jamahiriya AM Armenia MC Monaco AN Netherlands Antilles MD Moldova, Republic of AO Angola ME Montenegro AQ Antarctica MG Madagascar AS American Samoa MH Marshall Islands AW Aruba MK Macedonia AZ Azerbaijan ML Mali BA Bosnia & Herzegowina MM Myanmar BB Barbados MN Mongolia BF Burkina Faso MO Macau BH Bahrain MP Northern Mariana Islands BI Burundi MQ Martinique BJ Benin MR Mauritania BM Bermuda MS Montserrat BN Brunei Darussalam MU Mauritius BO Bolivia MV Maldives BS Bahamas MW Malawi BT Bhutan MZ Mozambique BV Bouvet Island NC New Caledonia BW Botswana NE Niger BY Belarus NF Norfolk Island BZ Belize NI Nicaragua CC Cocos (Keeling) Islands NP Nepal CD Congo, the drc NR Nauru CF Central African Republic NU Niue CG Congo NZ New Zealand CI Cote D’ivoire OM Oman CK Cook Islands PF French Polynesia CM Cameroon PG Papua New Guinea CU Cuba PM St. Pierre & Miquelon CV Cape Verde PN Pitcairn CX Christmas Island PR Puerto Rico CY Cyprus PW Palau DJ Djibouti PY Paraguay DM Dominica QA Qatar DO Dominican Republic RE Reunion DZ Algeria RO Romania EH Western Sahara RS Serbia ER Eritrea RW Rwanda ET Ethiopia SB Solomon Islands FJ Fiji SC Seychelles FK Falkland Islands SD Sudan FM Micronesia SH St. Helena FO Faroe Islands SJ Svalbard & Jan Mayen Islands FX France, Metropolitan SL Sierra leone GA Gabon SM San Marino GD Grenada SN Senegal GE Georgia SO Somalia GF French Guiana SR Suriname GI Gibraltar SS South Sudan GL Greenland ST Sao Tome & Principe GM Gambia SY Syrian Arab Republic GN Guinea SZ Swaziland GP Guadeloupe TC Turks & Caicos Islands GQ Equatorial Guinea TD Chad GS South Georgia & South S.S. TF French Southern Territories GU Guam TG Togo GW Guinea-Bissau TJ Tajikistan GY Guyana TK Tokelau HM Heard & Mc Donald Islands TM Turkmenistan HN Honduras TN Tunisia HT Haiti TO Tonga IO British indian ocean territory TP East timor IR Iran (Islamic Republic of) TV Tuvalu IS Iceland TW Taiwan, Province of China JO Jordan UA Ukraine KG Kyrgyzstan UG Uganda KH Cambodia UM U.S. Minor Islands KI Kiribati UZ Uzbekistan KM Comoros VA Vatican City State KN Saint Kitts & Nevis VC Saint Vincent & the Grenadines KP Korea, D.P.R.O. VG Virgin islands (British) KR Korea, Republic Of VI Virgin islands (U.S.) KY Cayman Islands VU Vanuatu KZ Kazakhstan WF Wallis & Futuna Islands LA Laos WS Samoa LC Saint Lucia YE Yemen LI Liechtenstein YT Mayotte LK Sri Lanka ZW Zimbabwe LR Liberia Note . KR (South Korea; Korea, Republic of) is dropped because it is the country of K-pop.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Social Sciences(all)
- Computer Science Applications
- Library and Information Sciences