Relationship between vitamin D-binding protein polymorphisms and blood vitamin D level in Korean patients with COPD

Youngmok Park, Young Sam Kim, Young Ae Kang, Ju Hye Shin, Yeon Mok Oh, Joon Beom Seo, Ji Ye Jung, Sang Do Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Background: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the blood vitamin D3 level is generally low, and genetic polymorphisms of vitamin D-binding protein encoded by the GC gene are associated with COPD development. In this study, we examined the relationship between GC polymorphisms and plasma vitamin D3 level in Korean patients with COPD. Methods: The study included 175 COPD patients from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease Cohort. Multivariate analysis was conducted with adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), lung function, smoking status, smoking amount, and seasonal variation in blood vitamin D level. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level lower than 20 ng/mL. Results: The mean plasma vitamin D3 level was 17.5 ng/mL. The GC1F variant (44.3%) and genotype 1F-2 (27.4%) were the most common. The plasma vitamin D3 level was lower in patients with the GC2 variant (estimated =−3.73 ng/mL) and higher in those with genotype 1F-1S (estimated =4.08 ng/mL). The GC2 variant was a significant risk factor for vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio =2.41). Among COPD clinical parameters, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a lower ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) regardless of GC polymorphisms. FEV1/FVC was higher in patients with genotype 1F-1F (estimated =3.61%) and lower in those with genotype 1F-2 (estimated =−3.31%). The 6-minute walking distance was shorter for patients with the GC1F variant (estimated =−38.91 m) and longer for those with the GC2 variant (estimated =26.98 m). The emphysema index was higher for patients with the GC1S variant (estimated =6.56%) and genotype 1F-1S (estimated =9.86%), regardless of the vitamin D level. Conclusion: The GC2 variant is a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency, and genotype 1F-1S is a protective factor against vitamin D deficiency. GC polymorphisms and vitamin D deficiency correlate with clinical outcomes for Korean patients with COPD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)731-738
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of COPD
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Apr 7

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a grant from the Korea Healthcare Technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health and Welfare (HI10C2020 and A102065) and Handok Inc. (4-2013-0645).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Park et al.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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