Purpose: In a group of surgery patients diagnosed with renal cell cancer, those who underwent dialysis were compared with those who received a kidney transplant. Materials and Methods: The 43 subjects included in this study were patients who had been undergoing dialysis because of end-stage renal disease or had undergone kidney transplantation. The patients were diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) during follow-up and underwent radical nephrectomy from May 1996 to December 2010. Their medical records were retrospectively analyzed as part of the study. Results: In the transplantation group, the renal replacement therapy period averaged 54 months, and the period from transplantation to RCC averaged 119 months (range, 0 to 264 months). In the dialysis group, RCC was observed after an average of 124 months (range, 2 to 228 months) of dialysis, and nephrectomy was then conducted. Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) was found more frequently in the dialysis group, and it had a statistically relevant effect on the occurrence of RCC by comparison with the transplantation group (p<0.01). Conclusions: Although the incidence rate of ACKD was significantly higher in the dialysis group among patients undergoing surgery for RCC, cancer was found even without ACKD development in some transplant recipients. Considering that the transplant recipients also underwent dialysis, an informative prospective study will be necessary to determine whether other immunosuppressive agents besides ACKD may function as a cancer risk factor.
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