In general, expression of transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) is upregulated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), resulting in p53 instability. Previous studies show that TGase 2 binds to p53 and transports it to the autophagosome. Knockdown or inhibition of TGase 2 in RCC induces p53-mediated apoptosis. Here, we screened a chemical library for TGase 2 inhibitors and identified streptonigrin as a potential therapeutic compound for RCC. Surface plasmon resonance and mass spectroscopy were used to measure streptonigrin binding to TGase 2. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that streptonigrin binds to the N-terminus of TGase 2 (amino acids 95–116), which is associated with inhibition of TGase 2 activity in vitro and with p53 stabilization in RCC. The anti-cancer effects of streptonigrin on RCC cell lines were demonstrated in cell proliferation and cell death assays. In addition, a single dose of streptonigrin (0.2 mg/kg) showed marked anti-tumor effects in a preclinical RCC model by stabilizing p53. Inhibition of TGase 2 using streptonigrin increased p53 stability, which resulted in p53-mediated apoptosis of RCC. Thus, targeting TGase 2 may be a new therapeutic approach to RCC.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by a research grant from the National Cancer Center in Korea (to S.-Y.K.; NCC1410280-5).
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research