Purpose: Behçet's disease (BD) theoretically affects all sizes and types of blood vessels and results in multi-organ involvement. However, renal BD has not been fully characterized, though the kidneys are histologically rich in blood vessels. Materials and Methods: A total of 2007 patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for BD were enrolled in this study. We reviewed the medical records and test results of the BD patients and used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine the clinical significance of renal involvement in BD. Results: Among the 2007 BD patients, we noted hematuria in 412 (20.5%) and proteinuria in 29 (1.4%). Univariate analysis showed that the BD patients with hematuria were predominantly female and older, had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESRs), and more frequently presented with genital ulcerations. BD patients with proteinuria had higher ESR levels compared to BD patients without proteinuria. In the multivariate analysis, age, sex, and ESR were found to be significantly associated with hematuria in BD patients, whereas only ESR was associated with proteinuria in BD patients. We also found that IgA nephropathy was the most common pathologic diagnosis in 12 renal BD patients who underwent renal biopsies. Conclusion: We suggest that routine urinalysis and serum renal function tests be performed for the early detection of renal BD, especially in older female BD patients with recurrent hematuria, high ESR levels, and frequent genital ulcers, as well as in BD patients with proteinuria and high ESR levels.
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