This study was conducted to identify the role of reproductive factors as environmental modifiers for breast cancer (BC) risk in clinic-based, East-Asian BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers with high-risk criteria of BRCA mutations (family history (FH) of BC, early-onset BC (aged =40 years)). A total of 581 women who were BRCA carriers (222 BRCA1 and 359 BRCA2), 1,083 non-carriers with FH, and 886 non-carriers with early-onset BC were enrolled and interviewed to examine the reproductive factors, from 2007 to 2014. The hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) in the weighted Cox regression model were used to calculate the BC risk based on the reproductive factors. Earlier menarche increased BC risk by 3.49-fold in BRCA2 mutation carriers (95%CI=2.03-6.00) and 3.30-fold in non-carriers with FH (95%CI=1.73-6.34), but was insignificantly associated with BRCA1 carriers and non-carriers for early-onset BC (P-heterogeneity=0.047). Higher parity decreased BC risk in BRCA carriers and non-carriers with FH, especially in BRCA1 carriers (HR=0.27, 95% CI=0.09-0.83 for two parity; and HR=0.23, 95%CI=0.05-1.00 for ≥3 parity), but increased the early-onset BC risk (HR=4.63, 95%CI=2.56-8.51 for > 3 parity, p-heterogeneity=0.045). Oral contraceptive (OC) use and longer estrogen exposure periods (≥30 years) were associated with an increased risk of early-onset BC (HR=3.99, 95%CI=1.65-9.67; HR=7.69, 95%CI=1.96-25.01), while OC use was not associated with BC risk in other groups and longer estrogen exposure had rather decreased risk for BC risk (both p-heterogeneity < 0.001). Several reproductive factors as risk modifiers could heterogeneously be associated with BC among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, noncarriers with FH, and early-onset BC non-carriers.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a grant from the National R&D Program for Cancer Control, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (#1020350 and #1420190), a Grant-in-Aid for Cancer Research and Control from the National Cancer Center of Korea (# 1710171), Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF-2016R1C1B1013621), and a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HI16C1127).
© Park et al.
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