Background: To investigate the effect of beta-blockers according to NP levels and HF phenotypes because natriuretic peptide (NP) level can be used to risk-stratify HF patients regardless of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Methods: Of 5,625 patients in the Korean acute heart failure registry, we included patients with LVEF and NP levels. HF phenotypes were defined as HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (EF ≤ 40%), HF with midrange ejection fraction (HFmrEF) (40% < EF < 50%), and HF with preserved EF (HFpEF) (EF ≥ 50%). Patients were further stratified by NP tertiles. Primary outcome was 5-year all-cause mortality according to beta-blocker use at discharge. Results: Both B-type NP (BNP) (r = −0.279, P < 0.001) and N-terminal pro-BNP (r = −0.186, P < 0.001) levels correlated inversely with LVEF. During a median follow-up duration of 961 days, 1560 (35.3%) patients died. In HFrEF, patients taking beta-blockers showed better survival regardless of NP levels. Regarding HFmrEF, there was no mortality difference between those taking and not taking beta-blockers. In HFpEF, beta-blocker use demonstrated lower mortality in those in the 3rd NP tertile (log-rank P = 0.041) but not in those in the 1st and 2nd NP tertiles (log-rank P > 0.05). After adjusting covariates, the use of beta-blockers was associated with a 38%-reduced mortality (hazard ratio: 0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.39–0.98; P = 0.040) in HFpEF patients in the 3rd NP tertile but not in those in 1st and 2nd tertiles. Conclusions: We confirm that the use of beta-blockers is beneficial in patients with HFrEF. Furthermore, we extend the benefits of beta-blockers to patients with HFpEF and high NP levels. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrial.gov identifier: NCT01389843 URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01389843 Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors appreciate John McMurrary (University of Glasgow) for his insightful advice regarding study design and the interpretation of study results.
© 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine