Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic stilbene derivative found in a variety of edible fruits, including nuts, berries, and grape skin. Although resveratrol has been suggested to improve thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissues of obese animals, there have been no reports on the anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol in the white adipose tissues of obese animals. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether resveratrol attenuates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced adipogenesis and inflammation in the epididymal fat tissues of mice and to explore the underlying mechanisms involved in this attenuation. In comparison with HFD-fed mice, mice fed with a 0.4% resveratrol-supplemented diet (RSD) showed significantly lower body weight gain (-48%), visceral fat-pad weights (-58%), and plasma levels of triglyceride, FFA, total cholesterol, glucose, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1). Resveratrol significantly reversed the HFD-induced up-regulation of galanin-mediated signaling molecules (GalR1/2, PKCδ, Cyc-D, E2F1, and p-ERK) and key adipogenic genes (PPARγ2, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, FAS, LPL, aP2, and leptin) in the epididymal adipose tissues of mice. Furthermore, resveratrol significantly attenuated the HFD-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IFNα, IFNβ, and IL-6) and their upstream signaling molecules (TLR2/4, MyD88, Tirap, TRIF, TRAF6, IRF5, p-IRF3, and NF-κB) in the adipose tissues of mice. The results of this study suggest that resveratrol inhibits visceral adipogenesis by suppressing the galanin-mediated adipogenesis signaling cascade. It may also attenuate cytokine production in the adipose tissue by repressing the TLR2- and TLR4-mediated pro-inflammatory signaling cascades in HFD-fed mice.
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