Introduction Intentional replantation is an alternative to tooth extraction and prosthetic replacement when conventional endodontic treatment modalities are unfeasible or contraindicated. This study assessed tooth retention and healing after intentional replantation and explored predictors of these outcomes. Methods Data of intentional replantation procedures performed between March 2000 and December 2010 were collected prospectively, excluding teeth with preoperative periodontal and root defects. A cohort of 159 teeth was followed up for 0.5-12 years. Retention and healed status without complications (periapical radiolucency, external root resorption, ankylosis, signs/symptoms, probing ≥6 mm) was recorded and analyzed with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression model (P <.05). Results Complications leading to extraction occurred in 8 of 159 teeth (5%). Kaplan-Meier survival function suggested 93% cumulative 12-year retention. Cumulative healed rates declined from 91% at 6 months to 77% at 3 years. The healed rate was significantly lower for maxillary teeth without preoperative periapical radiolucency, replanted in more than 15 minutes, and root-end filled with ProRoot MTA. Cox regression identified extraoral time ≤15 minutes as predictor of complication-free healing (P <.04; hazard ratio, 2.767; 95% confidence interval, 1.053-7.272). Conclusions This prospective cohort study of contemporary intentional replantation suggested a cumulative 12-year retention rate of 93% and healed rate of 77% after 3 years. Healing occurred 1.7 times more frequently in teeth replanted within 15 minutes. Although most complications occurred within 1 year after replantation, follow-up should extend for at least 3 years to capture late complications.
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