Purpose: To investigate whether retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness is decreased in patients with hematologic malignancy using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients and Methods: This prospective, observational crosssectional study included 65 eyes from 34 patients with hematologic malignancy and 72 healthy control eyes. OCT-measured RNFL thickness parameters (average, 4 quadrants, and 12 clock-hour thickness) and RNFL defect in red-free photo were compared between patients with hematologic malignancy and controls. Results: Among average, quadrant, and clock-hour map, the only 11-o'clock RNFL in patients with hematologic malignancy was statistically thinner than in controls (P=0.021). The RNFL defect was detected in 21/65 (32.3%) patients with hematologic malignancy and in 5/72 (6.9%) controls (P<0.001). In patients with hematologic malignancy, the mean RNFL thickness was significantly lower in the severe and moderate anemia groups compared with the mild anemia group (P=0.011). In the generalized estimating equations model, the mean hemoglobin level was associated with RNFL thickness while correcting for inter-eye correlation, age, and refraction error (coefficient=3.685, P=0.006). Conclusions: The RNFL defect was frequently observed, and the RNFL was thinner in severe anemic patients with hematologic malignancy. These results suggest that chronic anemia may be a factor of RNFL loss.
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