In the present study, we investigate the effects of signal to noise (SNR), slit function (FWHM), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) on the accuracy of formaldehyde (HCHO) vertical column density (HCHOVCD) using the ground-based direct-sun synthetic radiance based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). We found that the effect of SNR on HCHO retrieval accuracy is larger than those of FWHM and AOD. When SNR = 650 (1300), FWHM = 0.6, and AOD = 0.2, the absolute percentage difference (APD) between the true HCHOVCD values and those retrieved ranges from 54 (30%) to 5% (1%) for the HCHOVCD of 5.0 × 1015 and 1.1 × 1017 molecules cm-2, respectively. Interestingly, the maximum AOD effect on the HCHO accuracy was found for the HCHOVCD of 3.0 × 1016 molecules cm-2. In addition, we carried out the first ground-based direct-sun measurements in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range to retrieve the HCHOVCD using Pandora in Seoul. The HCHOVCD was low at 12:00 p.m. local time (LT) in all seasons, whereas it was high in the morning (10:00 a.m. LT) and late afternoon (4:00 p.m. LT), except in winter. The maximum HCHOVCD values were 2.68 × 1016, 3.19 × 1016, 2.00 × 1016, and 1.63 × 1016 molecules cm-2 at 10:00 a.m. LT in spring, 10:00 a.m. LT in summer, 1:00 p.m. LT in autumn, and 9:00 a.m. LT in winter, respectively. The minimum values of Pandora HCHOVCD were 1.63 × 1016, 2.23 × 1016, 1.26 × 1016, and 0.82 × 1016 molecules cm-2 at around 1:45 p.m. LT in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. This seasonal pattern of high values in summer and low values in winter implies that photo-oxidation plays an important role in HCHO production. The correlation coefficient (R) between the monthly HCHOVCD values from Pandora and those from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is 0.61, and the slope is 1.25.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments: This study was funded by the Korean Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMIPA 2015-6030, and this work was supported by the BK21 plus Project of the Graduate School of Earth Environmental Hazard System.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)