Zwitterionic polymers have extraordinary properties, that is, significant hydration and the so-called antipolyelectrolyte effect, which make them suitable for biomedical applications. The hydration induces an antifouling effect, and this has been investigated significantly. The antipolyelectrolyte effect refers to the extraordinary ion-responsive behavior of particular polymers that swell and hydrate considerably in physiological solutions. This actuation begins to attract attention to achieve in vivo antifouling that is challenging for general polyelectrolytes. In this study, we established the sophisticated cornerstone of the antipolyelectrolyte effect in detail, including (i) the essential parameters, (ii) experimental verifications, and (iii) effect of improving antifouling performance. First, we find that both osmotic force and charge screening are essential factors. Second, we identify the antipolyelectrolyte effect by visualizing the swelling and hydration dynamics. Finally, we verify that the antifouling performance can be enhanced by exploiting the antipolyelectrolyte effect and report reduction of 85% and 80% in ex and in vivo biofilm formation, respectively.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
J.H. acknowledges funding from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (NRF-2017R1E1A1A01074343), Bio and Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (2016M3A9C6917405, 2019M3A9H110378611), Korea Medical Device Development Fund grant funded by the Korea government (the Ministry of Science and ICT, the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety) (project number: 202011D04), and Samsung (SRFC-MA1602-07). H.-W.A. acknowledges funding from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (NRF-2019R1F1A1042263). H.L. acknowledges funding from the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (NRF-2017R1D1A1A09000510). S.-H.C. acknowledges funding from the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) and funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF-2018R1C1B6000989). B.-S.K. acknowledges funding from the Samsung (SRFC-MA1602-07).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)