Rgs19 regulates mouse palatal fusion by modulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in the MEE

Wern Joo Sohn, Young Rae Ji, Hyeng Soo Kim, Gi Jeong Gwon, Young Mi Chae, Chang Hyeon An, Hyun Do Park, Han Sung Jung, Zae Young Ryoo, Sanggyu Lee, Jae Young Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Palatal development is one of the critical events in craniofacial morphogenesis. During fusion of the palatal shelves, removal of the midline epithelial seam (MES) is a fundamental process for achieving proper morphogenesis of the palate. The reported mechanisms for removing the MES are the processes of apoptosis, migration or general epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through modulations of various signaling molecules including Wnt signaling. RGS19, a regulator of the G protein signaling (RGS) family, interacts selectively with the specific α subunits of the G proteins (Gαi, Gαq) and enhances their GTPase activity. Rgs19 was reported to be a modulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. In mouse palatogenesis, the restricted epithelial expression pattern of Rgs19 was examined in the palatal shelves, where expression of Wnt11 was observed. Based on these specific expression patterns of Rgs19 in the palatal shelves, the present study examined the detailed developmental function of Rgs19 using AS-ODN treatments during in vitro palate organ cultivations as a loss-of-function study. After the knockdown of Rgs19, the morphological changes in the palatal shelves was examined carefully using a computer-aided three dimensional reconstruction method and the altered expression patterns of related signaling molecules were evaluated using genome wide screening methods. RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization methods were also used to confirm these array results. These morphological and molecular examinations suggested that Rgs19 plays important roles in palatal fusion through the degradation of MES via activation of the palatal fusion related and apoptotic related genes. Overall, inhibition of the proliferation related and Wnt responsive genes by Rgs19 are required for proper palatal fusion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)244-254
Number of pages11
JournalMechanisms of Development
Volume129
Issue number9-12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Sep 1

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Palate
Cell Proliferation
Apoptosis
Morphogenesis
Gi-Go GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits
GTP-Binding Protein Regulators
Wnt Signaling Pathway
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
GTP Phosphohydrolases
Genes
In Situ Hybridization
Genome
In Vitro Techniques

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Embryology
  • Developmental Biology

Cite this

Sohn, W. J., Ji, Y. R., Kim, H. S., Gwon, G. J., Chae, Y. M., An, C. H., ... Kim, J. Y. (2012). Rgs19 regulates mouse palatal fusion by modulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in the MEE. Mechanisms of Development, 129(9-12), 244-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mod.2012.07.004
Sohn, Wern Joo ; Ji, Young Rae ; Kim, Hyeng Soo ; Gwon, Gi Jeong ; Chae, Young Mi ; An, Chang Hyeon ; Park, Hyun Do ; Jung, Han Sung ; Ryoo, Zae Young ; Lee, Sanggyu ; Kim, Jae Young. / Rgs19 regulates mouse palatal fusion by modulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in the MEE. In: Mechanisms of Development. 2012 ; Vol. 129, No. 9-12. pp. 244-254.
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abstract = "Palatal development is one of the critical events in craniofacial morphogenesis. During fusion of the palatal shelves, removal of the midline epithelial seam (MES) is a fundamental process for achieving proper morphogenesis of the palate. The reported mechanisms for removing the MES are the processes of apoptosis, migration or general epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through modulations of various signaling molecules including Wnt signaling. RGS19, a regulator of the G protein signaling (RGS) family, interacts selectively with the specific α subunits of the G proteins (Gαi, Gαq) and enhances their GTPase activity. Rgs19 was reported to be a modulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. In mouse palatogenesis, the restricted epithelial expression pattern of Rgs19 was examined in the palatal shelves, where expression of Wnt11 was observed. Based on these specific expression patterns of Rgs19 in the palatal shelves, the present study examined the detailed developmental function of Rgs19 using AS-ODN treatments during in vitro palate organ cultivations as a loss-of-function study. After the knockdown of Rgs19, the morphological changes in the palatal shelves was examined carefully using a computer-aided three dimensional reconstruction method and the altered expression patterns of related signaling molecules were evaluated using genome wide screening methods. RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization methods were also used to confirm these array results. These morphological and molecular examinations suggested that Rgs19 plays important roles in palatal fusion through the degradation of MES via activation of the palatal fusion related and apoptotic related genes. Overall, inhibition of the proliferation related and Wnt responsive genes by Rgs19 are required for proper palatal fusion.",
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Sohn, WJ, Ji, YR, Kim, HS, Gwon, GJ, Chae, YM, An, CH, Park, HD, Jung, HS, Ryoo, ZY, Lee, S & Kim, JY 2012, 'Rgs19 regulates mouse palatal fusion by modulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in the MEE', Mechanisms of Development, vol. 129, no. 9-12, pp. 244-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mod.2012.07.004

Rgs19 regulates mouse palatal fusion by modulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in the MEE. / Sohn, Wern Joo; Ji, Young Rae; Kim, Hyeng Soo; Gwon, Gi Jeong; Chae, Young Mi; An, Chang Hyeon; Park, Hyun Do; Jung, Han Sung; Ryoo, Zae Young; Lee, Sanggyu; Kim, Jae Young.

In: Mechanisms of Development, Vol. 129, No. 9-12, 01.09.2012, p. 244-254.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Rgs19 regulates mouse palatal fusion by modulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in the MEE

AU - Sohn, Wern Joo

AU - Ji, Young Rae

AU - Kim, Hyeng Soo

AU - Gwon, Gi Jeong

AU - Chae, Young Mi

AU - An, Chang Hyeon

AU - Park, Hyun Do

AU - Jung, Han Sung

AU - Ryoo, Zae Young

AU - Lee, Sanggyu

AU - Kim, Jae Young

PY - 2012/9/1

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N2 - Palatal development is one of the critical events in craniofacial morphogenesis. During fusion of the palatal shelves, removal of the midline epithelial seam (MES) is a fundamental process for achieving proper morphogenesis of the palate. The reported mechanisms for removing the MES are the processes of apoptosis, migration or general epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through modulations of various signaling molecules including Wnt signaling. RGS19, a regulator of the G protein signaling (RGS) family, interacts selectively with the specific α subunits of the G proteins (Gαi, Gαq) and enhances their GTPase activity. Rgs19 was reported to be a modulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. In mouse palatogenesis, the restricted epithelial expression pattern of Rgs19 was examined in the palatal shelves, where expression of Wnt11 was observed. Based on these specific expression patterns of Rgs19 in the palatal shelves, the present study examined the detailed developmental function of Rgs19 using AS-ODN treatments during in vitro palate organ cultivations as a loss-of-function study. After the knockdown of Rgs19, the morphological changes in the palatal shelves was examined carefully using a computer-aided three dimensional reconstruction method and the altered expression patterns of related signaling molecules were evaluated using genome wide screening methods. RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization methods were also used to confirm these array results. These morphological and molecular examinations suggested that Rgs19 plays important roles in palatal fusion through the degradation of MES via activation of the palatal fusion related and apoptotic related genes. Overall, inhibition of the proliferation related and Wnt responsive genes by Rgs19 are required for proper palatal fusion.

AB - Palatal development is one of the critical events in craniofacial morphogenesis. During fusion of the palatal shelves, removal of the midline epithelial seam (MES) is a fundamental process for achieving proper morphogenesis of the palate. The reported mechanisms for removing the MES are the processes of apoptosis, migration or general epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through modulations of various signaling molecules including Wnt signaling. RGS19, a regulator of the G protein signaling (RGS) family, interacts selectively with the specific α subunits of the G proteins (Gαi, Gαq) and enhances their GTPase activity. Rgs19 was reported to be a modulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. In mouse palatogenesis, the restricted epithelial expression pattern of Rgs19 was examined in the palatal shelves, where expression of Wnt11 was observed. Based on these specific expression patterns of Rgs19 in the palatal shelves, the present study examined the detailed developmental function of Rgs19 using AS-ODN treatments during in vitro palate organ cultivations as a loss-of-function study. After the knockdown of Rgs19, the morphological changes in the palatal shelves was examined carefully using a computer-aided three dimensional reconstruction method and the altered expression patterns of related signaling molecules were evaluated using genome wide screening methods. RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization methods were also used to confirm these array results. These morphological and molecular examinations suggested that Rgs19 plays important roles in palatal fusion through the degradation of MES via activation of the palatal fusion related and apoptotic related genes. Overall, inhibition of the proliferation related and Wnt responsive genes by Rgs19 are required for proper palatal fusion.

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