Objectives This study evaluated the dimensional ridge alteration in a buccal-bone-deficient extraction socket, and ridge regeneration following socket grafting accompanied by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) or a collagen membrane covering. Material and Methods In five beagle dogs, entire buccal bone of the extracted sockets of premolars was surgically removed and immediately grafted using one of the following graft protocols: (1) sham surgery without any grafting, and grafting with (2) deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), (3) DBBM/rhBMP-2 and (4) DBBM covered with a collagen membrane (DBBM/Membrane). Quantitative/qualitative analyses were performed radiographically/histologically after 8 weeks. Results Buccal-deficient extraction sockets healed with significant reduction in buccolingual dimension along the entire length of the socket, but all grafting techniques reduced the dimensional changes compared to the non-grafted control sites. Histologically, sites received DBBM only exhibited minimal regeneration, whereas sites grafted with DBBM/rhBMP-2 or DBBM/Membrane exhibited greater new bone formation extending the entire augmented area. Conclusions Buccal-bone-deficiency may lead to significant volume reduction after tooth extraction along the entire length of the socket, and socket grafting accompanied by rhBMP-2 or covered with a membrane can be candidate therapies for preservation of the buccolingual dimension and successful ridge regeneration.
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