Risk assessment of particulate matter by considering time-activity-pattern and major microenvironments for preschool children living in Seoul, South Korea

Kyungjun Jeong, Jiyeon Hong, Yongjin Lee, Jiyeon Yang, Youngwook Lim, Dongchun Shin, Changsoo Kim

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Preschool children aged 3–6 years are vulnerable to exposed to particulate matter (“PM10” and “PM2.5”). It is required in evaluating the risk based on dose of preschool children. Microenvironments which preschool children mainly visited were classified. Inhalation type was adapted in each microenvironment in consideration of intensity of activity. The exposure scenario was described as preschool children had been living in Seoul, South Korea, and dose was calculated by considering time-activity-pattern with major microenvironments and inhalation type of preschool children for 24 h. Monte-Carlo simulation technique is used to estimate dose of particulate matter in probabilistic distribution by age and sex. The contribution of exposure by microenvironments and inhalation type was calculated. Risk assessment was performed based on WHO interim target-3 24-h concentration in order to estimate. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effective variable of dose. As a result of the study, the dose of PM was higher for boys than girls and tended to decrease with age. The overall contributions of PM doses by microenvironments were daycare center, home, other facilities, transit, and outdoors, respectively, although differed between daycare center and home priority by age and sex. Especially, the contribution of daycare center and home was very high, accounting over 85% of the total. The overall contributions of PM doses by inhalation type were “run,” “stable,” “sleep,” and “walk inhalation,” respectively. The results of hazard quotient showed that “PM10” exceeded the WHO interim target-3 24-h concentration standard by about 10% and “PM2.5” exceeded about half. Through sensitivity analysis, PM concentration was confirmed as a major influence variable for doses. This study was able to affirm the overall exposure status of “PM10” and “PM2.5” for preschool children, and this is expected to be used in regulation and public health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37506-37519
Number of pages14
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number28
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jul

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
All data was supported by the Ministry of Environment. Also this work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (Ministry of Science and ICT and Ministry of Education) and (No.2019M3E7A1035155) and National Research Council of Science & Technology (NST) by the Korea government (MSIT) and (No. QLT-CRC-19-02-KICT). The particulate matter concentration data in microenvironments that support the findings of this study are available from the Ministry of Environment but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of the Ministry of Environment.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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