Purpose: We purposed to assess the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACH) on survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) who are treated with radical cystectomy (RC). Materials and Methods: Literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases for all articles that were published until February 2018. Systematic review and meta-analysis were performed by pooling the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared patients with locally advanced MIBC who received ACH after RC to those who underwent cystectomy alone. Endpoints were progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Four RCTs with a total of 490 patients were selected for the analysis. These four trials included patients with locally advanced MIBC. Pooled HRs for PFS and OS across the studies were 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.60; p<0.00001) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.48–0.83; p=0.0009), respectively. Absolute increases in PFS and OS for locally advanced MIBC were 17% and 10%, respectively (i.e., equivalent to numbers needed to treat of 5.9 and 10). Conclusions: ACH following RC may improve the survival outcomes of locally advanced MIBC patients. Beneficial effect of ACH might be more marked in patients with locally advanced MIBC when comparing the previously reported meta-analysis with all MIBC patients.
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