Background/Aims: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) plays a crucial role in the assessment and treatment of low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma; however, interobserver variation, inadequate accuracy in judging the depth of tumor invasion, and histological heterogeneity of the tumor can limit its role. Thus, we have assessed the role of 18F-FDG PET scans in the management of Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric MALT lymphoma. Methods: Eighteen patients with H. pylori-infected low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma underwent an 18F-FDG PET scan prior to receiving H. pylori eradication therapy. We analyzed these patients' clinicopathologic data and measured the baseline and change in the metabolic activity of the tumor using standardized uptake values (SUVs). Results: Two patients failed to achieve complete remission of the low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma after successful H. pylori eradication. The baseline SUVs were significantly higher in these patients compared to successfully treated patients, 13.35±0.07 vs 2.98±0.93, respectively (n=2 vs n=16, p<0.001). The reduction in the SUV was significantly greater in the complete remission patients compared to treatment failure patients (p=0.018). Conclusions: A high SUV at baseline 18F-FDG PET and a lower reduction in the SUV within 3 months after eradication therapy are associated with treatment failure in H. pylori-positive low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma patients undergoing eradication treatment.
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