Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract that mainly affects young people. IBD is associated with various gastrointestinal symptoms, and thus, affects the quality of life of patients. Currently, the pathogenesis of IBD is poorly understood. Although intestinal bacteria and host immune response are thought to be major factors in its pathogenesis, a sufficient explanation of their role in its pathophysiologic mechanism has not been presented. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression, have gained attention as they are known to participate in the molecular interactions of IBD. Recent studies have confirmed the important role of miRNAs in targeting certain molecules in signaling pathways that regulate the homeostasis of the intestinal barrier, inflammatory reactions, and autophagy of the intestinal epithelium. Several studies have identified the specific miRNAs associated with IBD from colon tissues or serum samples of IBD patients and have attempted to use them as useful diagnostic biomarkers. Furthermore, some studies have attempted to treat IBD through intracolonic administration of specific miRNAs in the form of nanoparticle. This review summarizes the latest findings on the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of IBD.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
- Molecular Biology
- Developmental Biology
- Cell Biology