The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sarpogrelate hydrochloride (SH), a selective serotonin 2A receptor antagonist, on diabetic nephropathy in a type 2 diabetes mouse model. We treated db/m and db/db mice with SH (30 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. Rat renal proximal tubule cells (NRK-52E) and mouse macrophages (Raw 264.7) were stimulated by high glucose (30 mM glucose) or LPS (100 ng/ml) with or without SH (20 μM). We found that SH treatment increased serum adiponectin level and decreased urinary albumin, macrophage infiltration to glomeruli, and renal inflammatory and fibrosis signals, which were highly expressed in diabetic mice. Proximal tubule cells treated with high glucose (30 mM) also showed increased inflammatory and fibrosis signals. However, SH (20 μM) treatment reduced these changes. Moreover, SH treatment inhibited LPS-stimulated macrophage migration and activation. These findings suggest that SH ameliorates diabetic nephropathy not only by suppressing macrophage infiltration, but also by anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2015R1D1A1A02060785, 2015R1A6A1A03032522) and the research grant from Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine (YUWCM-2009-23).
© 2017 Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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