To test emerging narratives of principals’ direct effect on student outcomes on a large scale, this study investigates whether school principals’ time use for interacting with individual students is associated with academic achievement and student safety at school. Built on recent research on principals’ time use, this study explores whether economic, sociocultural, and institutional features of societies influence the amount of time principals spend interacting with individual students. This time use, in turn, is assumed to be associated with academic achievement and safety at school. To explore the linkages, the study utilizes the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) with multilevel modeling. Implications of the findings are offered for an emerging inquiry on principals’ direct effect on student outcomes and for US education policy.
|Number of pages||42|
|Journal||American Journal of Education|
|Publication status||Published - 2021 Feb|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Fifth IEA International Research Conference in Singapore. This study was supported by the Ministry of Education and the National Research Foundation of Korea (Grant NRF-2017S1A3A2065967).
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