Search for EeV protons of galactic origin

R. U. Abbasi, M. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, R. Cady, B. G. Cheon, J. Chiba, M. Chikawa, T. Fujii, M. Fukushima, T. Goto, W. Hanlon, Y. Hayashi, M. Hayashi, N. HayashidaK. Hibino, K. Honda, D. Ikeda, N. Inoue, T. Ishii, R. Ishimori, H. Ito, D. Ivanov, C. C.H. Jui, K. Kadota, F. Kakimoto, O. Kalashev, K. Kasahara, H. Kawai, S. Kawakami, S. Kawana, K. Kawata, E. Kido, H. B. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Kishigami, S. Kitamura, Y. Kitamura, V. Kuzmin, Y. J. Kwon, J. Lan, B. Lubsandorzhiev, J. P. Lundquist, K. Machida, K. Martens, T. Matsuda, T. Matsuyama, J. N. Matthews, M. Minamino, K. Mukai, I. Myers, K. Nagasawa, S. Nagataki, T. Nakamura, T. Nonaka, A. Nozato, S. Ogio, J. Ogura, M. Ohnishi, H. Ohoka, K. Oki, T. Okuda, M. Ono, R. Onogi, A. Oshima, S. Ozawa, I. H. Park, M. S. Pshirkov, D. C. Rodriguez, G. Rubtsov, D. Ryu, H. Sagawa, K. Saito, Y. Saito, N. Sakaki, N. Sakurai, L. M. Scott, K. Sekino, P. D. Shah, T. Shibata, F. Shibata, H. Shimodaira, B. K. Shin, H. S. Shin, J. D. Smith, P. Sokolsky, B. T. Stokes, S. R. Stratton, T. A. Stroman, T. Suzawa, Y. Takahashi, M. Takamura, M. Takeda, R. Takeishi, A. Taketa, M. Takita, Y. Tameda, M. Tanaka, K. Tanaka, H. Tanaka, S. B. Thomas, G. B. Thomson, P. Tinyakov, A. H. Tirone, I. Tkachev, H. Tokuno, T. Tomida, S. Troitsky, Y. Tsunesada, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Uchihori, S. Udo, F. Urban, T. Wong, R. Yamane, H. Yamaoka, K. Yamazaki, J. Yang, K. Yashiro, Y. Yoneda, S. Yoshida, H. Yoshii, R. Zollinger, Z. Zundel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cosmic rays in the energy range 1018.0–1018.5 eV are thought to have a light, probably protonic, composition. To study their origin one can search for anisotropy in their arrival directions. Extragalactic cosmic rays should be isotropic, but galactic cosmic rays of this type should be seen mostly along the galactic plane, and there should be a shortage of events coming from directions near the galactic anticenter. This is due to the fact that, under the influence of the galactic magnetic field, the transition from ballistic to diffusive behavior is well advanced, and this qualitative picture persists over the whole energy range. Guided by models of the galactic magnetic field that indicate that the enhancement along the galactic plane should have a standard deviation of about 20° in galactic latitude, and the deficit in the galactic anticenter direction should have a standard deviation of about 50° in galactic longitude, we use the data of the Telescope Array surface detector in 1018.0 to 1018.5 eV energy range to search for these effects. The data are isotropic. Neither an enhancement along the galactic plane nor a deficit in the galactic anticenter direction is found. Using these data we place an upper limit on the fraction of EeV cosmic rays of galactic origin at 1.3% at 95% confidence level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-26
Number of pages6
JournalAstroparticle Physics
Volume86
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The Telescope Array experiment is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science through Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Specially Promoted Research ( 21000002 ) “Extreme Phenomena in the Universe Explored by Highest Energy Cosmic Rays” and for Scientific Research ( 19104006 ), and the Inter-University Research Program of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research; by the U.S. National Science Foundation awards PHY-0307098 , PHY-0601915 , PHY-0649681 , PHY-0703893 , PHY-0758342 , PHY-0848320 , PHY-1069280 , PHY-1069286 , PHY-1404495 and PHY-1404502 ; by the National Research Foundation of Korea ( 2015R1A2A1A01006870 , 2015R1A2A1A15055344 , 2016R1A5A1013277 , 2007-0093860, 2016R1A2B4014967 ); by the Russian Academy of Sciences, RFBR grant 16-02-00962a (INR), IISN project No. 4.4502.13 , and Belgian Science Policy under IUAP VII/37 (ULB) . The foundations of Dr. Ezekiel R. and Edna Wattis Dumke, Willard L. Eccles, and George S. and Dolores Doré Eccles all helped with generous donations. The State of Utah supported the project through its Economic Development Board , and the University of Utah through the Office of the Vice President for Research. The experimental site became available through the cooperation of the Utah School and Institutional Trust Lands Administration (SITLA), U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the U.S. Air Force. We appreciate the assistance of the State of Utah and Fillmore offices of the BLM in crafting the Plan of Development for the site. We also wish to thank the people and the officials of Millard County, Utah for their steadfast and warm support. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions from the technical staffs of our home institutions. An allocation of computer time from the Center for High Performance Computing at the University of Utah is gratefully acknowledged.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

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