Self-rechargeable cardiac pacemaker system with triboelectric nanogenerators

Hanjun Ryu, Hyun moon Park, Moo Kang Kim, Bosung Kim, Hyoun Seok Myoung, Tae Yun Kim, Hong Joon Yoon, Sung Soo Kwak, Jihye Kim, Tae Ho Hwang, Eue Keun Choi, Sang Woo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Self-powered implantable devices have the potential to extend device operation time inside the body and reduce the necessity for high-risk repeated surgery. Without the technological innovation of in vivo energy harvesters driven by biomechanical energy, energy harvesters are insufficient and inconvenient to power titanium-packaged implantable medical devices. Here, we report on a commercial coin battery-sized high-performance inertia-driven triboelectric nanogenerator (I-TENG) based on body motion and gravity. We demonstrate that the enclosed five-stacked I-TENG converts mechanical energy into electricity at 4.9 μW/cm3 (root-mean-square output). In a preclinical test, we show that the device successfully harvests energy using real-time output voltage data monitored via Bluetooth and demonstrate the ability to charge a lithium-ion battery. Furthermore, we successfully integrate a cardiac pacemaker with the I-TENG, and confirm the ventricle pacing and sensing operation mode of the self-rechargeable cardiac pacemaker system. This proof-of-concept device may lead to the development of new self-rechargeable implantable medical devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4374
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Nano Material Technology Development Program (2020M3H4A1A03084600) and the Basic Science Research Program (2021R1A2C2010990) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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